Grade "A+" Accredited by NAAC with a CGPA of 3.46
Grade "A+" Accredited by NAAC with a CGPA of 3.46

# Theory of Computation

Course ID
BHCS 12
Level
Program
B.Sc. CS (Hons.)
Semester
Fifth
Credits
6.0
Paper Type
Core Course
Method
Lecture & Tutorial

## Unique Paper Code: Update Awaited

This course introduces formal models of computation, namely, finite automaton, pushdown automaton, and Turing machine; and their relationships with formal languages. Students will also learn about the limitations of computing machines.

## Learning Outcomes:

At the end of the course, students should be able to:

• Design a finite automaton, pushdown automaton or a Turing machine for a problem at hand.
• Apply pumping lemma to prove that a language is non-regular/non-context-free.
• Describe limitations of a computing machine.

## Course Contents

Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6

Unit 1

Languages: Alphabets, string, language, basic operations on language, concatenation, union, Kleene star.

Unit 2

Regular Expressions and Finite Automata: Regular expressions, Deterministic finite automata (DFA).

Unit 3

Regular Languages: Non-deterministic Finite Automata (NFA), relationship between NFA and DFA, Transition Graphs (TG), properties of regular languages, the relationship between regular languages and finite automata, Kleene’s Theorem.

Unit 4

Non-Regular Languages and Context Free Grammars: Pumping lemma for regular grammars, Context-Free Grammars (CFG),

Unit 5

Context-Free Languages (CFL) and PDA: Deterministic and non-deterministic Pushdown Automata (PDA), parse trees, leftmost derivation, pumping lemma for CFL, properties of CFL.

Unit 6

Turing Machines and Models of Computations: Turing machine as a model of computation, configuration of simple Turing machine, Church Turing Thesis, Universal Turing Machine, decidability, halting problem.

#### Text Books

Cohen, D. I. A. (2011). Introduction to Computer Theory. 2nd edition. Wiley India.
Lewis, H.R. & Papadimitriou, H. R. (2002). Elements of the Theory of Computation. 6th edition. Prentice Hall of India (PHI)

Goodrich, M., Tamassia, R., & Mount, D.M. (2011). Data Structures and Algorithms Analysis in C++. 2nd edition. Wiley.
Gopalkrishnan, G.L. (2019) Automata and Computability: A programmer’s perspective. CRC Press.
Linz, P. (2016). An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata.6th edition. Jones and Bartlett Learning.

#### Teaching Learning Process

Use of ICT tools in conjunction with traditional class room teaching methods
Interactive sessions
Class discussions

#### Assessment Methods

Written tests, assignments, quizzes, presentations as announced by the instructor in the class

#### Keywords

Regular expressions and languages, finite automata, context free grammar and languages, pushdown automata, Turing machine.

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