Grade "A+" Accredited by NAAC with a CGPA of 3.46
Grade "A+" Accredited by NAAC with a CGPA of 3.46

# Computer System Architecture

Course ID
BHCS 02
Level
Undergraduate
Program
B.Sc. CS (Hons.)
Semester
First
Credits
6.0
Paper Type
Core Course
Method
Lecture & Practical

## Unique Paper Code: 32341102

This course introduces the students to the fundamental concepts of digital computer organization, design and architecture. It aims to develop a basic understanding of the building blocks of the computer system and highlights how these blocks are organized together to architect a digital computer system.

## Learning Outcomes:

At the end of the course, students should be able to:

• Design Combinational Circuits using basic building blocks. Simplify these circuits using Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps. Differentiate between combinational circuits and sequential circuits.
• Represent data in binary form, convert numeric data between different number systems and perform arithmetic operations in binary.
• Determine various stages of instruction cycle and describe interrupts and their handling.
• Explain how CPU communicates with memory and I/O devices.
• Simulate the design of a basic computer using a software tool.

## Course Contents

Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6

Unit 1

Digital Logic Circuits: Logic Gates, truth tables, Boolean Algebra, digital circuits, combinational circuits, sequential circuits, circuit simplification using Karnaugh map, Don’t Care Conditions, flip-flops, characteristic tables.

Unit 2

Digital Components: Half Adder, Full Adder, Decoders, Multiplexers, Registers and Memory Units.

Unit 3

Data Representation and Basic Computer Arithmetic: Number system, complements, fixed and floating point representation. Alphanumeric representation. Addition, subtraction.

Unit 4

Basic Computer Organization and Design: Common Bus system, instruction codes, instruction format, instruction set completeness, Sequence Counter, timing and control, instruction cycle, memory reference instructions and their implementation using arithmetic, logical, program control, transfer and input output micro-operations, interrupt cycle.

Unit 5

Central Processing Unit: Micro programmed Control vs Hardwired Control, lower level programming languages, Instruction format, accumulator, general register organization, stack organization, zero-address instructions, one-address instructions, two-address instructions, three- address instructions, Addressing Modes, RISC, CISC architectures, pipelining and parallel processing.

Unit 6

Memory Organization and Input-Output Organization: Input-Output Organization: Peripheral Devices, I/O interface, I/O vs. Memory Bus, Programmed I/O, Interrupt-Driven I/O, Direct Memory Access.

### Practicals

#### Lab List 1

1. Create a machine based on the following architecture :

Refer to Chapter-5 of reference 1 for description of instructions.
Design the register set, memory and the instruction set. Use this machine for the assignments of this section.

1. Create a Fetch routine of the instruction cycle.
2. Write an assembly program to simulate ADD operation on two user-entered numbers.
3. Write an assembly program to simulate SUBTRACT operation on two user-entered numbers.
4. Write an assembly program to simulate the following logical operations on two user- entered numbers.
1. AND
2. OR
3. NOT
4. XOR
5. NOR
6. NAND
5. Write an assembly program to simulate MULTIPLY operation on two user-entered numbers.
6. Write an assembly program for simulating following memory-reference instructions.
1. ADD
2. LDA
3. STA
4. BUN
5. ISZ
7. Write an assembly language program to simulate the machine for following register reference instructions and determine the contents of AC, E, PC, AR and IR registers in decimal after the execution:
1. CLA
2. CMA
3. CME
4. HLT
8. Write an assembly language program to simulate the machine for following register reference instructions and determine the contents of AC, E, PC, AR and IR registers in decimal after the execution:
1. INC
2. SPA
3. SNA
4. SZE
9. Write an assembly language program to simulate the machine for following register reference instructions and determine the contents of AC, E, PC, AR and IR registers in decimal after the execution:
1. CIR
2. CIL

#### Lab List 2

1. Write an assembly program that reads in integers and adds them together; until a negative non-zero number is read in. Then it outputs the sum (not including the last number).
2. Create a machine for the following instruction format:

The instruction format contains a 3-bit opcode, a 1-bit addressing mode and a 12-bit address.
Write an assembly program to simulate the machine for addition of two numbers with I= 0 (Direct Address) and address part = 082. The instruction to be stored at address 022 in RAM, initialize the memory word with any decimal value at address 082. Determine the contents of AC, DR, PC, AR and IR in decimal after the execution.

1. Simulate the machine for the memory-reference instruction referred in above question with I= 1 (Indirect Address) and address part = 082. The instruction to be stored at address 026 in RAM. Initialize the memory word at address 082 with the value 298. Initialize the memory word at address 298 with operand 632 and AC with 937. Determine the contents of AC, DR, PC, AR and IR in decimal after the execution.
2. The instruction format contains 3 bits of opcode, 12 bits for address and 1 bit for addressing mode. There are only two addressing modes, I = 0 is direct addressing and I = 1 is indirect addressing. Write an assembly program to check the I bit to determine the addressing mode and then jump accordingly.

### Additional Information

#### Text Books

Mano, M. (1992). Computer System Architecture. 3rd edition. Pearson Education.

#### Additional Resources

Mano, M. (1995). Digital Design. Pearson Education Asia.
Null, L., & Lobur, J. (2018). The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture. 5th edition. (Reprint) Jones and Bartlett Learning.
Stallings, W. (2010). Computer Organization and Architecture Designing for Performance 8th edition. Prentice Hall of India.

#### Teaching Learning Process

Use of ICT tools in conjunction with traditional class room teaching methods
Interactive sessions
Class discussions

#### Assessment Methods

Written tests, assignments, quizzes, presentations as announced by the instructor in the class

#### Keywords

Combinational and sequential circuits, memory organization, computer organization, CPU design, parallelism.

Disclaimer: Details on this page are subject to change as per University of Delhi guidelines. For latest update in this regard please refer to the University of Delhi website here.

Disclaimer: Details on this page are subject to change as per University of Delhi guidelines. For latest update in this regard please refer to the University of Delhi website here.

English हिन्दी